the direct labor rate variance can be defined as which of the following?

You’ll also learn how companies perform this calculation. Businesses consist of a number of different departments, some of which generate costs and others make money.

the direct labor rate variance can be defined as which of the following?

They are paid at standard hourly rates of Rs 1.25, Rs 0.80 and Rs 0.70 respectively. In a normal working week of 40 hours the gang is expected to produce 1,000 units of output.

Direct Labor: Standard Cost, Rate Variance, Efficiency Variance

The engineering staff may have decided to alter the components of a product that requires manual processing, thereby altering the amount of labor needed in the production process. For example, a business may use a subassembly that is provided by a supplier, rather than using in-house labor to assemble several components. A labor standard may assume that a certain job classification will perform a designated task, when in fact a different position with a different pay rate may be performing the work. For example, the only person available to do the work may be very skilled, and therefore highly compensated, even though the underlying standard assumes that a lower-level person should be doing the work. The labor standard may not reflect recent changes in the rates paid to employees.

In this lesson, you will learn about cost centers, profit centers and investment centers. Corporal Company manufactures and sold 10,000 units of furniture during the period. Management can revise their budgeted rate if there is something extra ordinary happens in the normal course of business. At the end of the period, the variances are closed to the Sales Revenue account. If the volume is greater than originally anticipated, the variance will be unfavorable.

Variance analysis of variable overheads assists a company to know the expenses that will be incurred in the future and that is to be incurred at a particular rate. These costs must be paid as soon as they are incurred or on the statement of financial position a current liability balance would increase. It is important for a company that it must increase its liquidity as per the expenses estimated.

However, the use of under-qualified laborers may result to excessive time in performing tasks , excessive raw materials used , and/or poor product quality. In addition to evaluating materials usage, companies must assess how efficiently and effectively they are using labor in the production of their products. Direct labor is a cost associated with workers working directly in the production process. The company must look at both the quantity of hours used and the rate of the labor and compare outcomes to standard costs.

It is the difference between the budgeted fixed overhead and the standard fixed overhead allocated to production. The frozen standard hours, which are from the Work Order Routing table . The variance percentage results from the actual units or amounts divided by the standard units or amounts. Overhead costs are the machine hours in the Work Order Time Transactions table multiplied by the overhead rates entered for the work center in the Work Center Rates table . Lists the standard costs on a work order parts list and the actual costs recorded for the parts issued.Manufacturing Acctg Reports , Discrete Material Usage Variance – Std. The variable overhead category includes a large number of accounts, some of which may have been classified fallaciously and so do not appear as part of variable overhead .

Get the sum of the benefits and taxes (100+50) and divide the figure by 40 to get 3.75. The $3.75 is added to $13 to get an hourly rate of $16.75. Standard labor rates are influenced by amount of overtime, new hiring at various paying rates, promotions of labors and outcome of contract negotiations with any unions representing the production staff. It is because the labor rate standards are defined by labor union contracts and company personnel policies.

Rate Variance And Efficiency Variance

Examples include salaries of supervisors, janitors, and security guards. Actual labor costs may differ from budgeted costs due to differences in rate and efficiency. A company can provide training to low-cost unskilled workers to make them more efficient. Such things would help to reduce production costs over time. However, there is always a risk that workers would move to other companies after getting training in due course. In case, the supply of labor force is more than the demand, it would result in a drop in the labor rate. Watch this video presenting an instructor walking through the steps involved in calculating direct labor variances to learn more.

the direct labor rate variance can be defined as which of the following?

Thus positive values of direct labor rate variance as calculated above, are favorable and negative values are unfavorable. QuickBooks Like direct material standards, direct labor standards also consist of two components, quantity and price.

Direct labor rate variance must be analyzed in combination with direct labor efficiency variance. Direct labor rate variance determines the performance of human resource department in negotiating lower wage rates with employees and labor unions. A positive value of direct labor rate variance is achieved when standard direct labor rate exceeds actual direct labor rate.


The main aim here is to consider the total actual variable overhead which is done by applying the standard amount to work in process and the difference to the appropriate variance accounts. Favorable when the actual labor cost per hour is lower than standard rate which means the direct labor cost lower than expected.

  • This is because an unfavorable variance will impact the bottom line.
  • As a result of this unfavorable outcome information, the company may consider using cheaper labor, changing the production process to be more efficient, or increasing prices to cover labor costs.
  • It may be due to the company acquiring defective materials or having problems/malfunctions with machinery.
  • The standard hours are the expected number of hours used at the actual production output.

However, completely eliminating overtime will not be possible because it could impact the product and customers. So, the best executives can do is to manage the overtime hours. If workers get more payment for quality production, this may also result in a variance. If workers work overtime, it may also result in variance.

Costing techniques are used to determine how much it costs a company to manufacture a product. Process costing is the method used when comparable products are manufactured.

However, the low pay rate workers may not be as efficient. Finally, overtime work at premium rates can be reason of an unfavorable labor price variance if the overtime premium is charged to the labor account. The total direct labor variance is also found by combining the direct labor rate variance and the direct labor time variance. By showing the total direct labor variance as the sum of the two components, management can better analyze the two variances and enhance decision-making. Professional managers should research about the nature of variances related to their variable overhead. It will not be enough to simply conclude that more or less was spent than proposed.


These computations are important because they help managers to analyze differences between planned and actual costs related to labor. The labor efficiency variance is also known as the direct the direct labor rate variance can be defined as which of the following? labor efficiency variance, and may sometimes be called the labor variance. Other names for this variance are labor wage rate variance, labor price variance or labor rate of pay variance.

Direct Labor Rate Variance: Definition, Formula, Explanation, Analysis, And Example

This variance occurs when the time spends in production is the same between budget and actual while the cost per hour change. We assume that the actual hour per unit equal to the standard hour CARES Act but we need to pay higher or lower due to various reasons. This is a variance in labour cost which arises due to substitution of labour when one grade of labour is substituted by another.

They expected to use 31,450 hours per the standard cost card. A direct labor rate variance is the actual rate paid being different from the standard rate.

It is possible that with direct labor and direct material, there are chances that the prices paid by the organization for underlying components diverted from the expectations. And on the other hand, it is also possible that the productive efficiency recording transactions of a company drove the variances. Total variable overhead variance in actual is the sum of variable overhead rate variance and a variable overhead efficiency variance. However, a positive value of direct labor rate variance may not always be good.

If the total actual cost incurred is less than the total standard cost, the variance is favorable. Direct labor efficiency variance pertain to the difference arising from employing more labor hours than the planned. The company A manufacture shirt, the standard cost has shown that the direct labor need for one unit is 2 hours at a rate of $5 per hour. Doctors, for example, have a time allotment for a physical exam and base their fee on the expected time. Insurance companies pay doctors according to a set schedule, so they set the labor standard. They pay a set rate for a physical exam, no matter how long it takes.

This includes the definition, important, formula, example, reasons for favorable and adverse as well as the limitation of variable overhead rate variance. Direct labor rate variance is very similar in concept to direct material price variance. Rate variance$Time variance$Total direct labor cost variance$b.The employees may have been less-experienced or poorly trained, thereby resulting in a labor rate than planned.